Mental Exhaustion: Symptoms, Causes and Treatments

Katelyn Hagerty

Reviewed by Katelyn Hagerty, FNP

Written by Rachel Sacks

Published 10/18/2022

Updated 10/19/2022

Most people are familiar with the feeling of physically working so long or hard that we’re completely wiped out when we’re done. Our muscles are incredibly tired, perhaps even to the point where we feel like we can’t use them anymore.

You can experience this same feeling in your brain instead of your muscles. When your mind works hard for long periods with few breaks, you could become mentally exhausted.

But what exactly causes mental exhaustion? Further, what are the signs of mental exhaustion, and how can you treat it?

Ahead, answers to these questions and a comprehensive look at mental exhaustion.

Mental exhaustion (or mental fatigue) happens when your brain maintains an intense level of activity without periods of rest. Although it’s not a medical condition per se, it can still impact your overall well-being and quality of life.

Mental fatigue affects cognitive skills like memory, decision-making, problem-solving, emotion regulation and, of course, thinking.

You may also experience a kind of “brain drain” if you suffer from chronic stress. Also known as long-term stress, chronic stress can lead to emotional exhaustion, the feeling of being emotionally, physically and mentally tired.

Emotional exhaustion, as the name implies, deals with the ability to identify, process and express emotions. It may come up if you’re navigating difficult feelings like grief, anger or sadness.

Mental exhaustion isn’t the same as stress, though. Stress can lead to panic, frustration and even anxiety. It’s a temporary reaction to an external factor that resolves once the stressor goes away.

That said, prolonged stress can make a person feel mentally exhausted, which commonly happens with job burnout.

Physical exhaustion is also different from mental exhaustion. A physically exhausted person may feel tired from physical activity but still mentally alert. However, it’s possible for physical exhaustion to lead to mental exhaustion, as seen in athletes with rigorous training schedules.

Keep reading for more causes of mental exhaustion, along with a rundown of the signs of mental exhaustion.

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Mental exhaustion can happen for a few reasons. For instance, physical exhaustion and chronic stress can make you feel mentally exhausted.

If you often engage in cognitive tasks or find yourself in challenging situations that require a lot of emotional energy, it could lead to mental exhaustion.

Other causes of mental fatigue include:

  • Having a demanding or high-pressure job (also known as job burnout)

  • Working long hours, especially with few or no breaks

  • Dealing with overwhelming daily responsibilities

  • Living with chronic illness

  • A mental health condition, such as depression or anxiety

  • Using substantial mental energy worrying or thinking about stressors

  • Lacking work-life balance

  • Having no emotional support system

  • Dealing with grief or other painful, heavy emotions

If you’re facing any of the above situations, you may be experiencing mental exhaustion symptoms.

Signs of mental exhaustion can present in different ways. The condition may show up in the form of physical, emotional or behavioral symptoms.

One tell-tale sign is feeling less alert than usual or finding it difficult to focus. Emotional symptoms of mental exhaustion might also appear as:

  • Depression or depressive symptoms like a persistently low or sad mood

  • Irritability

  • Self-doubt

  • Detachment

  • Loss of motivation

  • A cynical or negative outlook

  • Suicidal thoughts

Mental exhaustion can affect your physical health too. The physical symptoms of mental exhaustion can include:

  • Unexplained aches like headaches or muscle pain

  • Sleep issues, such as sleep disturbances or not getting enough sleep

  • Physical fatigue

Constant mental exhaustion can even affect everyday activities, leading to behavioral symptoms like:

  • Memory issues or brain fog

  • Avoiding people you normally spend time with

  • Arguing more with loved ones

  • Using alcohol or other substances to cope

  • Procrastinating important tasks

Mental or emotional exhaustion can also lead to burnout symptoms. Burnout, while also not technically a medical condition, is physical, emotional or mental exhaustion with similar symptoms to mental exhaustion.

Burnout can look different for everyone, but common symptoms include feeling apathetic or dissatisfied toward work, fatigue and changes to sleep patterns.

Whether you’re dealing with burnout or mental exhaustion, there are ways to treat the condition and prevent future mental fatigue.

Remove the Stressor

One way to recover from or prevent future mental exhaustion is to remove whatever is causing mental fatigue (aka the stressor). Of course, eliminating stress triggers altogether may not always be possible, but it might help if you can do away with at least a few.

If work is stressful, consider asking your manager or co-workers for help with tasks. You can also try delegating some of your responsibilities to others.

If household duties or caregiving responsibilities are causing stress, consider hiring a professional cleaner, organizer or caregiver. Alternatively, look toward other support systems like friends and family members.

Take a Break

When signs of mental exhaustion start popping up, you could be on the road to burnout. Practice self-care by taking time to rest and recharge.

You could try clearing non-essential tasks from your schedule for a few days or taking an extended vacation. Blocking off your calendar for just an hour each day can give you enough time to relax. You can even try a mental detox to clean anxious or stressful thoughts out from your brain.

Try to Relax

Relaxation techniques can help ease stress, alleviate tension and promote calmness. Mindfulness practices may also help a person become more aware of their emotions as well as manage burnout or mental fatigue.

Meditation, breathing techniques or guided imagery are all ways to practice mindfulness.

Focus on Sleep

Quality sleep is not only good for physical health but mental health as well — especially considering sleep deprivation is one of the most common mental exhaustion symptoms.

Aim to get the recommended seven to eight hours of shut-eye each night to relieve both physical and mental exhaustion.

If you’ve been struggling with sleep, establishing healthy habits might help you get a better night’s rest. Try limiting screen time during the hour before bed, doing some relaxing stretches or a quick yoga flow and going to bed around the same time each night.


Finding the motivation to exercise might be tough, especially when you’re mentally fatigued. But physical activity is a top-notch way to reduce stress, improve your mood and maintain good health.

And you don’t have to do super long or intense workouts to reap the benefits. Even a simple 10-minute walk can provide a mental health boost.

Seek Mental Health Support

Seeking support from a mental health professional can help you better deal with stress and emotional exhaustion. A therapist can also suggest positive lifestyle changes that may reduce the impact of stress.

If your mental exhaustion is the result of depression or anxiety, your healthcare provider might recommend medication. Some may prescribe antidepressants like sertraline (Zoloft®) or escitalopram (Lexapro®) to help deal with stress, anxiousness or depressive symptoms.

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If you’re feeling drained, dealing with brain fog or are more fatigued than normal, you might be dealing with mental exhaustion. Whether it’s a result of long-term stress, an existing mental health condition or simply too much work, it can affect your emotional and physical well-being and impact your ability to perform everyday activities.

No matter the cause of your mental exhaustion, help is available. If you’re interested in starting therapy to talk about mental fatigue or burnout, you can connect with a therapist through our online therapy services or explore our mental health resources.

10 Sources

Hims & Hers has strict sourcing guidelines to ensure our content is accurate and current. We rely on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations. We strive to use primary sources and refrain from using tertiary references.

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  3. Vetter, R. E., & Symonds, M. L. (2010). Correlations between injury, training intensity, and physical and mental exhaustion among college athletes. Retrieved from,_Training_Intensity,.1.aspx
  4. Singh R, Volner K, Marlowe D. Provider Burnout. [Updated 2022 Jun 21]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Retrieved from
  5. Targum, S. D., & Fava, M. (2011). Fatigue as a residual symptom of depression. Innovations in clinical neuroscience, 8(10), 40–43. Retrieved from
  6. Burnout Prevention and Treatment. (n.d.). Retrieved from
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  8. Burnout: 5 Signs and What to Do About It. (2022, February 1). Cleveland Clinic's Health Essentials. Retrieved from
  9. Janssen, M., Heerkens, Y., Kuijer, W., van der Heijden, B., & Engels, J. (2018). Effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on employees' mental health: A systematic review. PloS one, 13(1), e0191332. Retrieved from
  10. How Sleep Deprivation Impacts Mental Health Columbia University Department of Psychiatry. (2022, March 16). Columbia Psychiatry. Retrieved from

This article is for informational purposes only and does not constitute medical advice. The information contained herein is not a substitute for and should never be relied upon for professional medical advice. Always talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of any treatment. Learn more about our editorial standards here.

Katelyn Hagerty, FNP

Kate Hagerty is a board-certified Family Nurse Practitioner with over a decade of healthcare experience. She has worked in critical care, community health, and as a retail health provider.

She received her undergraduate degree in nursing from the University of Delaware and her master's degree from Thomas Jefferson University. You can find Katelyn on Doximity for more information.

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